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Complete Fluid Mechanics Laboratory - F1-10

Based around the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench, this range of equipment has been extended and reinforced with an integrated range of hhydrostatics teaching accessories and some new hydraulics products. Thus the complete curriculum can be covered.

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F1

FLUID MECHANICS
F1 Complete Fluid Mechanics Laboratory - Issue 1

The Armfield Hydraulics Bench and accessories have long been the benchmark used in Fluid Mechanics teaching laboratories. The comprehensive range of equipment covers all aspects of the teaching of hydraulics in a safe, visual and easy to understand way, backed up by first class teaching materials.

This range of equipment has now been extended and reinforced with an integrated range of hydrostatics teaching accessories together with some new hydraulics products. Thus the complete curriculum can be covered with this attractive range of products.

Fluid Statics

F1-11 Dead Weight Calibrator
F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure
F1-14 Metacentric Height

F1-29 Fluid Statics & Manometry Apparatus
F1-30 Fluid Properties Apparatus
F1-31 Pascal's Apparatus

Fluid Dynamics - (Closed Conduit Flow)

F1-15 Bernoulli’s Theorem
F1-16 Impact of a Jet
F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow
F1-17A Orifice Discharge
F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes
F1-20 Osborne-Reynolds Demonstration
F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration
F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends
F1-23 Free and Fixed Vortices
F1-24 Hydraulic Ram
F1-28 Cavitation Demonstration
F1-33 Pitot Tube Demonstrator
C6-MkII Fluid Friction Apparatus
C7-MkII Pipe Surge and Water Hammer Apparatus
C11-MkII Pipe Networks Accessory
S16 Hydraulic Flow Demonstrator

Open Channel Flow - (Free Surface Flow)

F1-13 Flow Over Weirs
F1-19 Flow Channel
C4-MkII Multi-purpose Teaching Flume
S16 Hydraulic Flow Demonstrator

Rotodynamic Machines - (Fluid Machinery)

F1-25 Demonstration Pelton turbine
F1-26 Series parallel pumps
F1-27 Centrifugal pump characteristics
F1-32 Demonstration Francis turbine

(also see the comprehensive range of computer controlled rotodynamic machines in the Armfield ‘Capture’ FM range.
URL: www.armfield.co.uk/fm)

Note: ‘F’ Coded products are aimed at an introduction to basic principles. ‘C’ and ‘S’ coded products provide a more thorough understanding of the topic covered.

Ordering Specification

F1-10 Hydraulics Bench

• Mobile, floor standing service unit for fluid mechanics apparatus
• Base constructed from robust, corrosion resistant plastic moulding
• Top constructed from glass reinforced plastic
• Sump tank capacity 250 litres
• Volumetric flow measurement via remote sight gauge 
• Stepped tank for low and high flowrates. Capacities 0-6 and 0-40 litres
• Open channel in benchtop with quick release outlet fitting
• Self priming centrifugal circulating pump provides water at 21m head at no flow, and a maximum flow of 60 litres per minute

F1-11 Dead Weight Calibrator

• Precision machined piston and cylinder with levelling screws
• Bourdon gauge with inlet and outlet valves
• Set of weights
• Educational software available as an option

F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure

• Flotation tank with adjustable feet
• Accurately formed plastic quadrant
• Lever arm with counterbalance and weight hanger
• Educational software available as an option

F1-13 Flow Over Weirs

• Two stainless steel weir plates to fit in channel of hydraulics bench
• Vernier hook and point gauge with carrier
• Stilling baffle
• Educational software available as an option

F1-14 Metacentric Height

• Rectangular floating pontoon with mast
• Variable centre of gravity via movable weights (transverse and vertical)
• Clinometer indicates angle of heel
• Educational software available as an option

F1-15 Bernoulli's Theorum Demonstration

• Venturi section machined from clear acrylic
• Seven static pressure tappings plus a total head measurement
• Flow control valve
• Manometer board with eight tubes
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-16 Impact of a Jet

• Discharge nozzle inside clear acrylic cylinder
• Four different target plates, which fit onto a balance mechanism
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow

• Constant head tank with two interchangeable orifices
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Jet trajectory measured and plotted using adjustable pointers
• Educational Software available as an option

F1-17A Orifice Discharge

• Cylindrical clear acrylic tank with orifice fitted in base
• Five interchangeable orifices
• Pitot tube and wire on micrometer to measure jet velocity and diameter
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes

• Vertical test pipe with pressure tappings at entry and exit
• Feed either direct from hydraulics bench or from constant head tank
• Water and mercury manometers supplied as standard
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-19 Flow Channel

• Clear acrylic working section fed from stilling tank
• Six different models for investigation
• Dye injection system
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-20 Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration

• Vertical test section fed from header tank with stilling media
• Bellmouth entry to promote smooth flow into the test section
• Dye injection system enables flow visualisation
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration

• Venturi meter, variable area meter andorifice plate with flow control valve
• Pressure tappings to measure head loss across each meter
• Supplied with manometer board with eight tubes
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings

• Circuit with four bends of different radii
• Enlargement, contraction and gate valve, plus flow control valve
• Manometer board with 12 tubes plus differential pressure gauge
• Hand pump for pressurization of manometers
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-23 Free and Forced Vortices

• Cylindrical vessel with four inlet/outlet ports to generate free and
forced vortices
• Three interchangeable orifices and paddle wheel to fit in base of tank
• Measuring bridge with adjustable pointers and internal caliper to measure vortex dimensions
• Pitot tubes for estimation of velocities in vortex
• Quick release fittings for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-24 Hydraulic Ram Pump

• Pump body manufactured from clear acrylic with stainless steel pulse and non-return valves
• Adjustable acrylic header tank with inlet and outlet hoses
• Outlet hose with variable head arrangement
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Supplied with weights to load pulse valve
• Educational software available as an option

F1-25 Pelton Turbine

• Turbine wheel inside cast housing with acrylic panel to enable viewing
• Mechanical torque measured using dynamometer with spring balances
• Inlet pressure gauge
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-26 Series/Parallel Pumps

• Fixed speed pump with similar performance characteristics to pump in hydraulics bench
• Mounted on floor-standing plinth with ON/OFF switch
• Discharge manifold with flow control valve and pressure gauges
• All hoses and fittings supplied for easy connection to hydraulics bench in either series or parallel configuration
• Educational software available as an option

F1-27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

• Variable speed pump with similar performance characteristics to pump in hydraulics bench
• Mounted on floor-standing plinth with variable speed inverter drive
• Discharge manifold with flow control valve and pressure gauges
• All hoses and fittings supplied for easy connection to hydraulics bench in either series or parallel configuration
• Educational software available as an option

F1-28 Cavitation Demonstration

• Circular Venturi-shaped test section manufactured from clear acrylic for full visualisation of cavitation
• Three Bourdon gauges indicate the static pressure upstream of the contraction, inside the throat and downstream of the expansion in the test section
• Flow control valves upstream and downstream of the test section enable flow conditions to be optimised for the demonstration of cavitation
• Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench
• Educational software available as an option

F1-29 Fluid Statics and Mamometry

• Demonstrates the basic principles of hydrostatics and manometry
• Includes vertical tube with variable cross section, scale length 460 mm
• Includes demonstrations of the following types of manometer:
- Single piezometer manometer tube, scale length 460 mm
- Inclined manometer with inclinations of 5°, 30°, 60° and 90° (vertical)
- Enlarged limb-manometer
- ‘U’ tube manometer (air over liquid), scale length 460 mm
- ‘U’ tube manometer (liquid over liquid), scale length 460 mm
- Inverted pressurized ‘U’ tube manometer, scale length 460 mm
• Level measurement using Vernier hook and point gauge, range 0 to 150 mm with 0.1 mm resolution
• Enables the effect of friction to be demonstrated when fluid is in motion

F1-30 Fluid Properties

• Components stored on support frame manufactured from PVC
• Two Hydrometer jars 50 mm diameter and 450 mm high
• Universal hydrometer with varying resolution of 0.01 at 0.70 SG to 0.5 at 2.00 SG
• Two Falling sphere viscometer tubes 40 mm diameter with calibration marks at 0, 25, 100, 175, 200 and 220 mm
• Steel spheres 1.588, 2.381 and 3.175 mm diameter
• Spirit filled thermometer glass, range -10° to 50° C
• Aneroid barometer, range 910 to 1060 mbar
• Six capillary tubes 150 mm long with 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.7 and 2.2 mm bore
• Density bottle (pycnometer), capacity 50 ml
• Dual-scale lever balance, ranges 0 to 250 gms x 1gm and 0 to 1 kg x 10 gms

F1-31 Pascal's Apparatus

• Lever arm with sliding weight and spirit level measures force at the base of the vessel
• Three alternative glass vessels supplied: parallel sided, conical and tapering
• Flexible diaphragm retained by ‘O’ ring for ease of replacement
• Height adjustable pointer enables all vessels to be filled to a common depth

F1-32 Francis Turbine

• Francis runner surrounded by six guide vanes inside PVC volute with clear acrylic front panel for visualisation
• Guide vanes adjustable when turbine is running with scale to indicate degree of opening and clamp to prevent movement
• Francis runner 60 mm diameter with 12 blades
• Brake force determined using Prony type brake dynamometer
• Inlet pressure gauge with range 0 to 2 bar
• Educational software as an option

F1-33 Pitot Tube Demonstrator

• Pitot tube with scale to determine the position within the pipe diameter
• Includes pressurised water manometer with scale length 500mm
• Approximate dimensions 1.0m x 0.55m x 0.23m
• Set of connecting tubes
• Instruction manual

C4-MKII Multi-purpose Teaching Flume

• A 76mm wide, 250mm high open channel for use with a hydraulics bench
• Available in 2.5m and 5.0m working section lengths
• Clear acrylic sides to give visibility of the working section
• A jacking system permits the slope of the channel bed to be adjusted between -1% and +3%
• Inlet tank with flow stilling arrangement
• Includes a Venturi, sharp and broad crested weirs, two vernier level gauges, adjustable undershot weir and crump weir
• Wide range of other models available as accessories
• Optional flowmeter
• Comprehensive instruction manual
• Educational software available as an option

C6-MKII-10 Fluid Friction Apparatus

• Tubular steel framework supporting a network of pipes and fittings
• Four smooth-bore test pipes of different diameters ranging from 4.5mm I.D. to 17.2mm I.D., plus roughened pipe
• Large selection of valves, bends and fittings for test:
- artificially roughened pipe
- 90° bends (large & small radii)
- 90° elbow
- 90° mitre
- 45° elbow, 45° Y, 90° T
- sudden enlargement
- sudden contraction
- gate valve
- globe valve
- ball valve
- inline strainer
- clear acrylic Venturi
- clear acrylic orifice meter
- clear acrylic pipe section with a pitot tube & static tapping
• Acrylic pipe section with Venturi, orifice plate and pitot tube
• 37 tapping points for head loss measurement
• Supplied with fittings for easy connection to hydraulics bench (no tools required)
• Various instrumentation options available including water, mercury or digital manometers
• Educational software available as an option
• Data logging accessory available, comprising turbine flow meter, two pressure sensors and USB interface, plus data logging software
• Optional data logging accessory, comprises two electronic pressure sensors, electronic flow sensor, signal conditioning USB interface and software on CD-ROM enabling logging of measured variables using a PC

C7-MKII Pipe Surge and Water Hammer Apparatus

• A freestanding unit designed to demonstrate the phenomena of pipe surge and water hammer when connected to a hydraulics bench
• Includes two separate stainless steel test pipes, both 3m long, constant head tank, slow acting valve, fast acting valve etc
• A transparent surge shaft (40 mm diameter and 800mm high) with scale enables transient water levels to be observed and timed
• Electronic sensors used to measure pressure transients at two locations in the water hammer test pipe, one adjacent to fast acting valve and one half way along the test pipe.
• Pressure transients monitored using a PC (not supplied) using a USB connection from the pressure transducers (requires no external electrical supply)
• Straight metal pipes used, rather than a coiled arrangement, to minimize distortion to the pressure profile

C11-MKII Pipe Networks

• Specifically designed to enable the setting up of a wide range of different pipe arrays (networks)
• Pipe network mounted on freestanding support frame for use alongside an F1-10 Hydraulics Bench
• Clear acrylic test pipes are all 0.7 m long with inside diameters of 1x 6mm, 2x 9mm, 1x 10mm, 1x 14mm
• Differential pressure measurements obtained using a hand-held electronic pressure meter with self-sealing quick-release connections to the pipe network
• Flows into and out from the appropriate network can be varied individually
• Educational software as an option

S16 Hydraulic Flow Demonstrator

• A floor-standing flow channel for use with a hydraulics bench
• Working section 77mm wide, 150mm high and 1100mm long
• Can be configured to demonstrate flow in open channels and closed conduits
• Clear acrylic sides for good visibility of flow patterns created
• Stilling arrangement at inlet to promote smooth flow into the working section
• Section of bed can be elevated continuously and locked at the required height
• Discharge tank incorporates flow control valve for convenience in setting up
• Total and static heads indicated on multi-tube manometer connected to pitot tubes and static tappings at three locations in working section
• Pitot tubes mounted through bed of channel for ease of priming and height adjustment (can be traversed from floor to roof to measure velocity profile)
• Transparent scales enable measurement of all important heights and levels
• Models of hydraulic structures supplied include undershot weir (sluice gate) at the inlet, overshot weir at the outlet, sharp crested weir, broad crested weir (also used to create a culvert) and ogee weir
• Suitable for project work with alternative hydraulic structures (user created)
• Optional direct reading flowmeter to aid setting up of demonstrations
• Comprehensive instruction manual supplied

F1-10 Basic Hydraulics Bench

This unit is designed as a portable and self-contained service module for the range of accessories described later in this data sheet.

The bench is constructed from lightweight corrosion resistant plastic and is mounted on wheels for mobility. The bench top incorporates an open channel with side channels to support the accessory on test.

Volumetric measurement is integral and has been chosen in preference to other methods of flow measurement for its ease of use, accuracy and safety in use (no heavy weights for students to handle).

The volumetric measuring tank is stepped to accommodate low or high flow rates. A stilling baffle reduces turbulence and a remote sight tube with scale gives an instantaneous indication of water level. A measuring cylinder is included in the supply for measurement of very small flow rates.

A dump valve in the base of the volumetric tank is operated by a remote actuator. Opening the dump valve returns the measured volume of water to the sump in the base of the bench for recycling. An overflow in the volumetric tank avoids flooding.

Water is drawn from the sump tank by a centrifugal pump and a panel mounted control valve regulates the flow. An easy-to-use quick release pipe connector situated in the bench top enables the rapid exchange of accessories without the need for tools.

Each accessory is supplied as a complete piece of equipment needing no additional service items other than the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench. When coupled to the bench they are immediately ready for use.

Technical Details - F1-10

Item Value
Pump: centrifugal type max. head 21m H2O max. flow 1.35 litres/sec
Motor rating: 0.37kW
Sump tank capacity: 250 litres
High flow volumetric tank: 40 litres
Low flow volumetric tank: 6 litres
Height of working surface: 1 metre above floor level

Recommended Instruments

Stop watch
Vernier caliper
Reference pressure gauge

Complementary Equipment

F4 Precision Pressure Gauge Calibrator
F5 Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration
F6 Air Flow Studies
F1-28 Cavitation Demonstration
F12 Particle Drag Coefficients
F14MkII Hydrogen Bubble Flow Visualisation System
H12-8 Electronic Pressure Meter
H12-9 Electronic Pressure Meter

Toxic Materials: Due to international restrictions limiting the transport of toxic materials we do not include mercury in our supply.

Requirements

Electrical supply:

F1-10-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @10A
F1-10-B: 110/120V/1ph/60Hz @20A
F1-10-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz @10A

F1-26-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @10A
F1-26-B: 110/120V/1ph/60Hz @20A
F1-26-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz @10A

F1-27-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @10A
F1-27-B: 110/120V/1ph/60Hz @20A
F1-27-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz @10A

Water:

Fill with clean water.
No permanent connection required.

Shipping Specification

F1-10 Hydraulics Bench only:

Volume: 1.5m3
Gross Weight: 160kg
Individual accessories on request

Overall Dimensions

Height: 1.00m
Width: 1.13m
Depth: 0.73m
Individual accessories on request